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Amoxicillin

Antibiotic, Bactericidal, Penicillin / related

Brand Names

Amoxi-inject®, Amoxi-mast®, Amoxibol®, Amoxidrops®, Amoxil®, Amoxitabs®, Biomox®, Polymox®, Robamox®

Drug Information

Pharmacology

Aminopenicillin antimicrobial – semisynthetic penicillin – broad spectrum antibiotic.

Contraindications

General
  • Contraindicated in patients with history of hypersensitivity to penicillin antibiotics and possibly cephalosporin antibiotics because of the potential for cross reactivity.
  • Use with caution in pregnancy.

Adverse Effects

General
  • Hypersensitivity reactions to penicillin antibiotics can occur- rash, fever, eosinophilia, joint pain, neutropenia, agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, anemias, lymphadenopathy and full blown anaphylaxis.
  • May cause GI effects-anorexia, vomiting and diarrhea.
  • Injectable causes pain at site for injection.
  • Rapid IV injection can cause neurologic signs and seizures.
  • Elevated liver enzymes have been reported with the use of penicillins.
General
  • Large animals may experience abdominal pain and diarrhea from oral dose.
  • IM injection in large animals should be as a 10 % suspension.
Dog
  • High dose or prolonged therapy has been associated with neurotoxicity in dogs.
  • Other reported effects in dogs are tachypnea, dyspnea, edema and tachycardia.

Interactions

General Interactions
  • Food may decrease oral absorption.
  • Give antibiotic 1 hour before or 2 hours after unless GI effects occur.
  • Probenecid competitively blocks the tubular secretion of most penicillins and thereby increases serum levels and serum half lives.

Category Interactions
Aminoglycoside Antibiotic
  • Penicillins have synergistic effects against certain bacteria when used with aminoglycosides.
Antacid
  • Antacids may decrease oral absorption. Give antibiotic 1 hour before or 2 hours after.
Bacteriostatic
  • Penicillins are most effective against growing bacteria and therefore the concurrent use of bacteriostatic antibiotics is not recommended.
Cephalosporin antibiotic
  • Penicillins have synergistic effects against certain bacteria when used with aminoglycosides.

Drug Interactions
Neomycin sulfate
  • Neomycin blocks oral absorption.

Comments

After reconstitution with sterile water for injection, parenteral solution is stable for 3 months at room temperature and 1 year if refrigerated.
Advise clients to refrigerate oral suspension – stable for 14 days refrigerated.
For information regarding compatibility in solution or combination with other drugs, refer to specialized reference material.
Give with food if GI effects occur.

Available Forms

Human
  • Amoxicillin tabs-chewable 125 and 250 mg-Amoxil® , generic. Amoxicillin capsules, 250 and 500 mg-Polymox® , Wymox® and generic Amoxicillin powder for oral suspension – 50 mg/mL in 15 and 30 mL bottles and 125 mg/5 mL and 250 mg/5 mL in 80, 100, 150, 200 mL bottles.
Veterinary – General
  • Amoxicillin tabs – 50, 100, 150, 200 and 400 mg, Amoxitabs® – Approved for use in dogs and cats; 50, 100 and 200 mg tablets, Biomox® – approved for dogs. Robamox-V® -Approved for dogs only. May not be currently available. Amoxicillin powder for oral suspension- 50 mg/mL in 15 or 30 mL bottles, Amoxidrops® -approved for dogs and cats. Robamox-V® (May not be currently available) and Biomox® – Approved for dogs only. Amoxicillin oral bolus 400 mg. Amoxi-bol® – Approved for non ruminating calves. May not be currently available. Amoxicillin powder for injection 3 gram vials-Approved for dogs and cats, 25 gram vials- Approved for non lactating cattle; Amoxi-inject®. Amoxicillin intramammary infusion 62.5 mg/syringe in 10 mL syringe-Amoxi-mast® , Approved for use in lactating dairy cattle.

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